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Hamangia Neolithic culture (5.200 BC - 4.500 BC) developed between the Danube river and the Black Sea, southern Romania. The Sitting Woman and The Thinker in photo

The Thinker and the Sitting Woman – dated 4.000 BC

Reenactment of a 6000 years old Cucuteni village

Reconstruction of a 5000 years old Cucuteni village

 

old europe – When “old” means truly old

 

“Neolithic Europe” lasted from 10000 BC to 2000 BC. The Neolithic period began when man developed farming and domesticated animals. The period included strictly agricultural societies, which ended once tools became widespread.

Between the 7th and 5th millennia BC, communities throughout south-east Europe developed mixed horticultural economies, villages with well-built houses, an abundance of sculptural and ceramic art, craft specialization including weaving and metallurgy and elaborate ritual traditions. The abundance of fertile soils in these regions lead to the formation of larger human settlements.

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The cultures developed around 3 main rivers: Danube river in the south (natural border with Bulgaria), Prut river – the natural border with Moldova, and Siret river, outlined with pink on the map.

cucuteni-map

The Cucuteni culture developed on plains from around the Carpathian mountains and continuing into Ukraine, which are known to be extremely fertile.

Generic map of Gumelnita culture. The blue lines represent the main rivers in the region. Gumelnita was preceded by Hamangia culture, located in today's Dobrogea (Dobruja) region.

Map of Gumelnita culture. The blue lines represent the main rivers. Gumelnita was preceded by Hamangia culture, located in today’s Dobrogea (Dobruja) region.

The following descriptions and photos belong to cultures developed from 6000 BC to 4000 BC on the territories of present-day Romania and its neighboring countries – Cucuteni-Trypillian, Hamangia, Gumelnita. These societies were egalitarian and pacifist, without social classes or rulers; they had mostly female gods related to fertility.

Cucuteni-trypillian and Gumelnita cultures

Cucuteni-Trypillian and Gumelnita cultures

 

gumelnita

Gumelnita culture was a Chalcolithic (Eneolithic) civilization that flourished more than 6.000 years ago, from 5th to 4th millenium BC along the Black Sea, in present day Romania and Bulgaria.

Gumelnita daily life reenactment

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Câmpiei Boianului Museum (in Olt county) is an ethnographic open-air museum where you can see, among other things, a reconstruction of Gumelnita settlements.

Video presents a typical village 6000 years ago

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Click on links below to see galleries of various objects

Anthropomorphic vases (imitates body shape)

Zoomorphic vases (animal shapes)

Anthropomorphic statuettes

Gold and bone statuettes

Miniatural objects

Vases with special function

“Import” objects from other cultures, proof of contact with other civilizations

Gumelnita culture Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilization old eastern europe Gumelnita culture Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Gumelnita culture lovers Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

Gumelnita culture bone figures Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

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Gumelnita culture settlements Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

Gumelnita culture village Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

Gumelnita neolithic culture Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe Gumelnita culture Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations old eastern europe

Gumelnita culture settlement Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europeGumelnita culture house Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

Gumelnita culture Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe 1

Houses of the Gumelnita culture from southern Romania. The farmer houses were painted with what is believed to have been pagan motifs.

1920's peasant house in southern Romania, similar patterns can be observed on the walls. The astronomy and nature motifs in traditional Romanian architecture were sacred symbols orally transmitted from distant predecessors.

1920’s peasant house in southern Romania, similar patterns can be observed on the walls. The astronomy and nature motifs in traditional Romanian architecture were sacred symbols orally transmitted from distant predecessors.

Gumelnita culture house interior Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations old eastern europe Gumelnita culture sanctuary Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

Gumelnita culture houses Romania Bulgaria oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

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Gumelnita culture was preceded by Boian culture, whose ceramic art had a distinctive geometry.

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Two columns from a neolithic sanctuary in the Boian culture – Museum of Calarasi., archeology section.

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Gumelnita culture was preceded by Boian culture, whose ceramic art had a distinctive geometry. This particular pattern is believed to represent infinity.

More details and photos here – http://muzeulgumelnita.ro/images/Catalog-Muzeul-Civilizatiei-Gumelnita-Oltenita-2005.pdf

Cucuteni-Trypillian

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, also known as Cucuteni culture (Romania) or Trypillian culture (Ukraine), is a Neolithic archaeological culture which existed from approximately 4800 to 3000 BC, from the Carpathian Mountains to Moldova and Ukraine, encompassing an area of more than 35.000 square km.

Cucuteni settlements were built mostly around water sources (Prut, Dniester and Siret river) and were large in size, with typically over 1.000 structures in one settlement.

Once every 80 years, the settlements were completely incinerated (it is unknown if due to a religious belief).

Cucuteni culture is considered the largest and most durable of Neolithic times.

cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe 1cucuteni trypillian Romania Moldova Ukraine

The first discoveries were made in 1884. The Cucuteni Neolithic Art Museum was open in 1984, in Piatra Neamt.

Cucuteni Neolithic Art Museum in Piatra Neamt Romania

Cucuteni Neolithic Art Museum

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cucuteni trypillian culture Romania 3 cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine eastern europe cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine eastern europe cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe 2 cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest neolithic cucuteni trypillian culture Romania oldest civilizations eastern europe cucuteni trypillian culture Romania oldest neolithic civilizations cucuteni trypillian culture Romania oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe cucuteni trypillian culture Romania oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe 5 cucuteni trypillian figure Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe cucuteni trypillian figurines Romania cucuteni trypillian godess figure Moldova cucuteni trypillian godess Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe cucuteni trypillian godess Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest neolithic civilizations cucuteni trypillian godesses Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe cucuteni trypillian interior house Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe cucuteni trypillian people Romania oldest neolithic eastern europe

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cucuteni trypillian culture house interior Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

cucuteni trypillian culture room interior Romania oldest civilizations eastern europeVertical Loom cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe

Sanctuary room

Sanctuary room

Altar

Altar

cucuteni trypillian spoons Romania cucuteni trypillian vase Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe cucuteni-trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine oldest civilizations eastern europe figura-foomorfa--varvareuca cucuteni trypillian culture Romania Moldova Ukraine eastern europe Tarpesti Thinker cucuteni trypillian culture Romania neolithic vas-zoomorf cucuteni trypillian Romania oldest neolithic civilizations eastern europe

 

Vadastra culture Romania 5500-4800 BC

Vadastra culture Romania 5500-4800 BC

Hamangia Neolithic culture (5.200 BC - 4.500 BC) developed between the Danube river and the Black Sea, southern Romania. The Sitting Woman and The Thinker in photo

Hamangia Neolithic culture (5.200 BC – 4.500 BC) developed between the Danube river and the Black Sea, southern Romania. The Sitting Woman and The Thinker in the photo