“The first step in liquidating a people is to erase its memory. Destroy its books, its culture, its history. Then have somebody write new books, manufacture a new culture, invent a new history.
Before long the nation will begin to forget what it is and what it was. The world around it will forget even faster.” (Milan Hubl)
Sources – Opresiunea cultelor religioase din Romania în timpul dictaturii comuniste (Romanian)
– 45 zasad zniewolenia Polski powojennej (Polish)
– A leigázás 45 alapelve (Hungarian)
A secret documented unearthed in 1981 – entitled Moscow 02.06.1947 (Top Secret) K-AA/CC113, indication NK/003/47 – reveals the directives from Kremlin concerning the occupied countries of eastern Europe and east Germany. The document was elaborated by Laurent Beria, head of the NKVD, and was released on June 2, 1947.
According to the 1945 Yalta agreement signed by US president Truman, UK prime-minister Churchill and Soviet leader Stalin, the agreed Soviet presence did not imply the occupation or oppression of eastern Europe countries. The following document proves otherwise.
In 1939, following a secret pact with Hitler, the USSR invaded and occupied Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania and Poland. After being briefly liberated, the Baltic states and eastern Romania were re-occupied in 1944 and were forcefully incorporated into the USSR.
After the 1945 Yalta agreement with the Western Allies, the USSR proceeded to officially occupy Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and east Germany. The occupation lasted for over a decade until the Soviet troops retreated. From the 1960’s onward, the eastern European states remained under the influence of Kremlin, with the ever-present threat of Soviet invasion and aggression.
Hidden behind the myriad of political ideology and legitimized by mutual agreements with Western governments (see Yalta 1945), these foreign entities were given free hand at perpetrating acts that violated international law:
– undermining the national economy
– crimes against humanity
– violation of national sovereignty
– threat to the security of the state
– threat to public health
– theft of state and private property
– destruction and theft of cultural relics
– undermining environmental protection.
The perpetrators have yet to be held accountable for these crimes that sealed the faith of millions of people.
The directives sought to purposely compromise/ destroy the economy, industries (except the mining industry), education, health, culture, justice, transportation, military, public services, impoverish the population and physically eliminate all the opponents of the Soviet presence and its politics.
The government, public administration, factories and all economic units were to be secretly run and coordinated by agents from Kremlin or by their secret collaborators.
The 1947 document contained a total of 45 directives:
1. It is forbidden to receive on the territory of the embassies locals detected by us as informers. The meetings with these persons is organized by our special services designated for this purpose, and the meetings can only take place in public places. Information is received by the embassy through our special bodies, in this case with our officer handing them to the highest degree from the embassy.
2. No relation between our soldiers and the civilian population is allowed. It is forbidden for our officers to visit locals; it is also forbidden that soldiers establish relationships with local women. Do not allow relations between our soldiers and civilians or local soldiers.
3. The citizens who maintain ties with the Polish Communist Party, Polish Socialist Party, with the Communist Youth Organization, the Polish Home Army and other associations – will be liquidated. For this purpose you will make use of the military.
4. Military actions will taken by the soldiers who stayed on our territory (the Soviet Union) before entering the Kościuszko Army. We seek its complete destruction.
5. The unification of all parties into one party needs to be accelerated, making sure that all the key roles go to persons who work for our secret services.
6. Youth organizations must be unified quickly. From leaders of local organizations all the way up to leadership positions, all positions must be allocated to persons appointed by our special services.
7. Officials elected as deputies in the congress shall not be allowed to keep their mandate throughout the entire period of the election. Parliamentarians cannot, under any circumstances, call for meetings between companies/ businesses. If there is no way to avoid such meetings, all must be done to remove the presence of people who may come up with new concepts, or try to protect the public demands. Private initiatives must be completely eliminated. For every congress, special persons must be prepared and only those working for our secret services.
8. Special attention will be given to persons with good organizational skills and popularity. These people must be hired and, if they refuse our cooperation, their access to higher-level positions will be blocked.
9. All government workers, with the exception of those working in the mining industry and for our special services, must receive low wages. This refers especially to health, justice, culture, and those who hold leadership positions.
10. We must have collaborators in all government bodies, including factories, without the knowledge of the local administration bodies.
11. The local mass-media will not be allowed to publish data regarding the quality of the goods transported to us (USSR). Under no circumstances should this activity be called “commerce”. This activity will be called “commodity exchange”.
12. Constant pressure must be made on public services in order for them to not release documents proving land ownership; the only released documents will be those that prove the quality of the land, but never the property holder.
13. The policy towards the small family farm will seek to make it an unprofitable household. Then, collectivization must begin. If great resistance from the peasants is met, their assigned means of production must be reduced, while at the same time increasing their state quota (obligations towards the state). If this method doesn’t work, agriculture must be organized in such a manner that it cannot ensure the national food supply anymore, forcing the country into imports.
14. Everything must be done so that all public decisions and orders – either those of legal, economic or organizational nature – must always be adopted with delay.
15. Everything must be done for certain cases to be discussed simultaneously by several committees, offices and institutions, but none of them have the right to take a final decision before consulting with the other (exception cases aimed at mines industry).
16. The workers unions cannot exert any influence on the activity of the factory. Their only purpose is to put into practice the decisions of the higher management.
17. Trade unions have no right to resist any decision taken by the management. Unions must get involved only in minor issues like: public holidays, applications for pensions and loans, cultural and entertainment activities, trips, allocation of goods and the justification of decisions taken by the leadership.
18. The only leaders who should be promoted hierarchically are those who flawlessly execute all orders given to them, without questioning anything.
19. All local political, administrative or state leaders must be compromised in front of their employees in such a way that it becomes impossible for them to return to their original entourage.
20. Local military staff may be entrusted with leadership positions in places where our special services are already infiltrated.
21. For each armed action and firing exercise, the amount of the ammunition will be permanently monitored regardless of the type of weapon.
22. All research institutes and laboratories must be monitored, keeping records of any valuable research.
23. Special attention must be paid to inventors, innovators, and their work supported and developed, but every invention must be recorded at the center. The only research that it permitted is research applicable within the mining industry, or research that has our special indications. Inventions that ensure increased production of finished goods and ,in parallel, the decrease in extraction of raw materials, are forbidden. If an invention has become public, it must be sold abroad in western currency, using the justification that it’s too expensive to implement in the country. Documents containing data regarding the value and the description of the invention will never be published. All data and documents concerning the value and the detailed description of the invention will come into our possession.
24. Punctuality regarding shipments of any kind must be disrupted (except those included in the N. K. – 552-46 regulations).
25. Various training sessions and conferences must be initiated in factories, proposals and observations must be written down along with their respective authors.
26. Public talks must be initiated with factory workers dealing with current issues related to production, namely those that highlight negative past issues. The causes of the phenomena must also come into question.
27. Views expressed by the local leaderships may have national or historical reasoning, but they cannot lead to national unity.
28. Attention should be paid so that the water network of cities cannot be disconnected from the main water network. Old drainpipes and wells must be systematically liquidated.
29. Reconstruction of industrial sites and the construction of new ones must be organized in such a manner that all residual materials will be be dumped into water deposits that could be used as drinking water reserves.
30. In rebuilt cities or newly built housing facilities, it is no longer allowed to have any surplus space that could be used to shelter animals or store food reserves.
31. Private enterprises, small artisans and small industrialists shall only receive materials and equipment that lead to poor quality production. The final price of their goods must also be higher than the price of similar products made by the state.
32. State bureaucracy must be expanded at the highest level in all areas. Criticism regarding the poor functioning of the public administration is allowed, but the reduction of the number of staff nor the normal functioning of the bureaucracy will not be allowed.
33. Great care should be given to all manufacturing projects from the mining industry, especially enterprises targeted by us. A good supply to the internal market must be prevented.
34. Special attention should be paid to churches. Cultural-educational activity must be conducted so as to result in general antipathy towards them. All church printers, archives, content of sermons, songs, religious education, but also at the funeral ceremonies must be scrutinized.
35. All valuable teachers from elementary schools, colleges and universities must be removed, especially those who enjoy popularity. Their seats must be filled by people appointed by us, who have a weak or mediocre level of training. The differences between disciplines must be analyzed in order to reduce the amount of documentation material; high schools will stop teaching Latin and old Greek, philosophy, logic and genetics. History textbooks must not mention rulers who served in the best interest of the country. They will insist on the greed and wickedness of any ruler, on the negative effect of the monarchy and the oppressed people’s struggle. In specialized schools, specialization will be narrowed down.
36. Artistic or sporting activities will be organized in order to celebrate the local fight against invaders (insisting on Germans, excluding Russians) and to popularize the struggle for socialism.
37. It is prohibited to publicize any information regarding locals who lived on our territory (USSR) before the revolution or during the Second World War, or who fought with us during the war.
38. If any local organization is created in order to support the alliance with us, but also insist on working in economic management or the government, we must immediately start a campaign by indicting nationalism and chauvinism. This must be done following these steps: the desecrate of monuments that belong to us, destroy cemeteries, distribute manifestos that denigrate our nation and our culture and doubting the value of contracts signed with us. Locals must be involved in the propaganda work, using the hatred that exists against those organizations.
39. Special attention will be given to the construction and reconstruction of roads, bridges, pathways and networks, regardless of how remote or inaccessible they are, in order to facilitate possible military interventions, and to access any military resistance from all sides.
40. All political opponents must be jailed. All possible means will be used to try to recruit opponents who enjoys respect from the local population. If they dont join us, they will be compromised through smear campaigns. Before they become engraved in the consciousness of the masses, they must be liquidated through “unforeseen events” (contingency) or be imprisoned on charges of common crimes. Only in very special cases will political trials be allowed, which will be held on charges of “high treason”.
41. The rehabilitation of political convicts is forbidden. If a rehabilitation is inevitable, it will be allowed only provided that the case be considered a judicial mistake. The convict will not be judged, only pardoned; the trial wont be resumed and the authors of the wrong judgment will never be summoned.
42. Public criticism or prosecution of leaders (appointed by the communist party) who caused losses or dissatisfaction among the employees, is prohibited. In drastic cases, they will be removed from office and then re-appointed in similar or higher positions. Lastly, they will be placed in leadership positions or put in reserve for future subsequent changes.
43. The public will be notified of public trials against people (primarily the military, deputies, important public services, teachers) who will stand accused of wrong attitude against the people, against socialism and industrialization. It’s an action that draws the attention of the masses.
44. Those who occupy various low positions will be replaced by workers with the least training, or unqualified.
45. Priority to colleges and universities will be given almost exclusively to those who come from the lowest social classes, who are not interested to improve professionally to the highest level and who only seek to receive a diploma.
Similarities between NKVD directives and SAP programs:
– EDUCATION AND HEALTH: SAP underfunding of education and health leads to poor health of the population and poorly qualified professionals. The NKVD purposely sought to decrease the quality of education and health. Poor health/ education affect the long-term economic growth.
– PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION: weakened by SAP cuts to public spending; without a proper transportation system, the economy is affected. The NKVD prescribed cuts and intentional delays in transportation.
– PUBLIC UTILITIES: SAP forces the privatization of the basic public utilities (such as water) which leads to high prices and public dependency on private entities. NKVD took over the public utilities, created a single state-controlled network and removed any sources of self-sufficiency (water wells, land for agriculture etc).
– LACK OF TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY: both are secretive institutions who dont respond for their negative actions and consequences.
– AGRICULTURE: traditional agriculture is discouraged against state/ corporate agriculture, and government subsidies for food are eliminated. The government cannot feed its own populations which become dependent on these external entities.
– WORKERS RIGHTS: while supposedly protecting the interests of workers, both bodies eliminate bargaining laws and regulations which protect the workers, and impose low wages.
– PUBLIC CONSUMPTION: in order to service some kind of external debt (to the state/ bank), both entities impose the reduction of consumption for the population.
– EXPORTS: both entities increase export production against the development of diversified domestic economies. Export-oriented markets become the priority, while the domestic market becomes dysfunctional.
– PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: SAP reduction of government personnel to a minimum leads to inefficient public services. NKVD purposely sought to decrease the efficiency of public services.
– DOMESTIC ECONOMY: local goods become more expensive than state/ corporate goods. The local economy loses ground in front of the Soviet system/ modern corporations.
– NATIONAL RESOURCES: regulations regarding the ownership of national resources are removed in order to favor foreign control. Great attention is given to exports.